10 mins

From Voluntary to Mandatory: The Journey of Sustainability Disclosures for U.S. Enterprises

In a globally intertwined economy, regulatory evolutions in one region often resonate across borders, mandating multinational corporations to adapt and align. The realm of sustainability disclosures stands as a testament to this dynamic, particularly poignant for U.S. enterprises. Traditionally, sustainability reporting among U.S. companies has predominantly been a voluntary endeavor—a narrative of transparency and corporate responsibility. However, a burgeoning global awareness towards climate change and socio-environmental sustainability is heralding a new era, one where the voluntary is morphing into the mandatory.

A notable catalyst in this global shift is the recent endorsement of the European Sustainability Reporting Standards (ESRS) by the European Parliament, a move poised to redefine sustainability reporting landscape in Europe and beyond. As of 2024, a swath of over 50,000 enterprises will embark on the mandatory journey of ESRS reporting, a stride towards a more transparent and accountable corporate culture. Though a European edict, the ripples of this regulatory pivot are bound to be felt across the Atlantic, especially by U.S. multinationals with significant operational footprints within European borders.

Closer to home, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is on the brink of finalizing climate-related disclosure requirements. This domestic regulatory shift is geared towards compelling publicly traded companies to unveil not just their greenhouse gas emissions footprint, but also their climate-related goals, and the financial entanglements tied to climate risks.

Moreover, the advent of global sustainability disclosure standards such as those being formulated by the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) underscores a worldwide move towards harmonized disclosure frameworks. A move that U.S. multinationals cannot afford to sidestep.

As the dawn of mandatory sustainability disclosures nears, the journey for U.S. enterprises is pivoting towards uncharted terrains. This article delineates the evolving regulatory milieu, the ensuing challenges, and the imperatives for U.S. companies to adeptly navigate this transition. The goal is not merely about compliance, but about fostering a culture of sustainable and resilient business practices in a globally interconnected economic sphere, where actions in one region echo across continents.

The American Regulatory Kaleidoscope: A Transition Towards Mandatory Disclosures

The narrative of sustainability disclosures in the U.S. is becoming more pronounced under recent regulatory initiatives. These shifts, orchestrated by different federal and state entities, are steering the trajectory of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosures from voluntary to mandatory.

Federal Initiatives

SEC's Progressive Stance:

  • Climate Risk Disclosures: Proposed extensive disclosure rules regarding climate risk in March 2022.
  • Cybersecurity Risk Disclosures: Adopted final rules regarding the disclosure of cybersecurity risks in July 2023.
  • Upcoming Proposals: Indicated intentions to propose additional ESG-related disclosure rules concerning human capital management and board diversity.

Federal Supplier Climate Risks and Resilience Rule (Proposed):

  • Aims to mandate businesses with significant federal contracts to disclose climate-related data and set targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
  • Requires alignment with the Taskforce on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) framework.

California's Legislative Landscape

Climate Corporate Data Accountability Act (S.B. 253) (Proposed):

  • Targets all U.S. companies doing business in California with annual revenues exceeding $1 billion.
  • Mandates public reporting of Scopes 1, 2, and 3 GHG emissions on an annual basis starting in 2026.

Climate-Related Financial Risk Act (S.B. 261) (Proposed):

  • Targets all U.S. entities doing business in California with annual revenues exceeding $500 million.
  • Requires an annual report disclosing climate-related financial risks and adaptation measures, aligned with the TCFD framework.

Each of these regulatory threads is intricately woven into the broader fabric of sustainability disclosures, signaling a shift towards more transparent and standardized reporting. The ensemble of initiatives at both federal and state levels underscores a harmonized move towards aligning U.S. enterprises with global sustainability disclosure norms.

International Implications

U.S. companies with significant footprints in the European Union (EU) are set to navigate through additional layers of ESG reporting stipulated by EU's regulatory frameworks. These international regulations accentuate the complexity and the expanded scope of sustainability disclosures that U.S. enterprises need to heed, particularly those with substantial operations in the EU.

Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD):

  • Applicability: Targets non-EU companies, including private entities, with net turnover generated in the EU exceeding €150 million for two consecutive financial years.
  • Thresholds: Either having a large EU or EU-listed subsidiary or a branch generating more than €40 million in net turnover in the EU.
  • Reporting Spectrum: Encompasses a gamut of ESG topics including climate change, biodiversity, worker conditions, and human rights.
  • Compliance Timeline: Specific reporting standards are under development with compliance slated for 2029 (pertaining to fiscal year 2028).

Corporate Sustainability Due Diligence Directive (CSDDD) (Proposed):

  • Applicability: Envisaged to apply to large EU companies, non-EU companies with significant EU business, and entities generating 50% of their turnover from “high impact” sectors.
  • Due Diligence Mandate: Requires companies to adopt policies and procedures to mitigate sustainability risks within their operations and value chains.
  • Value Chain Scrutiny: Extends due diligence to suppliers’ practices, potentially impacting business relationships and supplier expectations.
  • Adoption Timeline: The directive is anticipated to be adopted in 2024.

U.S. enterprises, whether directly under the ambit of these regulations or indirectly impacted, are nudged towards a meticulous examination of their existing ESG programs and disclosures. The horizon calls for an astute preparation, entailing the development of robust plans and reporting infrastructure to sail through the compliance voyage that these international regulations delineate.

Impact on U.S. Multinationals

The evolving regulatory landscape, both domestically and internationally, is reshaping the sustainability disclosure narrative for U.S. multinationals. The ripple effects of these regulatory evolutions are profound, especially for those with significant operations in the European Union (EU). Here, we dissect the impact, delve into the transition from voluntary to mandatory disclosures, and elucidate through a comparative case study of two prominent U.S. multinationals.

New Regulations: A European Echo

U.S. multinationals with substantial operations in the EU find themselves at the intersection of domestic and international ESG reporting standards. The European directives like CSRD and CSDDD, although rooted in the EU, have a reverberating impact on these entities:

  • Compliance Rigor: The mandatory disclosure requirements necessitate a structured and comprehensive ESG reporting framework, demanding significant investment in data collection, verification, and reporting infrastructure.
  • Operational Adaptation: The due diligence on sustainability risks extends beyond the company's practices to encompass its value chain, urging a reevaluation and potential restructuring of business relationships and supplier engagements.
  • Strategic Alignment: These regulations underscore the essence of aligning corporate sustainability strategies with global standards, fostering a holistic approach towards mitigating sustainability risks and embracing responsible business practices.

From Voluntary to Mandatory: A Paradigm Shift

The shift from voluntary to mandatory disclosure regimes heralds a new era of transparency and accountability:

  • Increased Scrutiny: Mandatory disclosures invite a higher degree of scrutiny from stakeholders, regulators, and the public, urging companies to uphold stringent standards of accuracy and completeness in reporting.
  • Enhanced Stakeholder Confidence: A standardized and regulated disclosure framework augments stakeholder confidence by providing a clear, comparable, and comprehensive view of a company's sustainability performance.
  • Competitive Edge: Companies adept at navigating this transition, and effectively communicating their sustainability efforts, are likely to carve a competitive edge in a market that increasingly values corporate responsibility.

Key Challenges and Opportunities

The unfolding regulatory panorama presents a blend of challenges and opportunities for U.S. multinationals in mastering the art and science of sustainability disclosures.

Challenges Unveiled

The new sustainability disclosure mandates bring to light a gamut of challenges that demand astute attention and strategic maneuvering:

Data Management:

  • Harnessing a plethora of data spanning across environmental, social, and governance (ESG) facets necessitates a robust data management infrastructure.
  • The essence of accuracy, consistency, and timeliness in data reporting calls for sophisticated data collection, validation, and reporting systems.

Analytical Rigor:

  • Discerning the materiality and relevance of various sustainability indicators requires a blend of analytical prowess and sector-specific expertise.
  • Employing analytical tools and frameworks to assess, measure, and communicate sustainability impacts and risks is imperative.

Assurance Requirements:

  • The regulatory mandates for assurance underscore the need for rigorous verification and validation processes to ensure data integrity and credibility.
  • Transitioning from limited to reasonable assurance demands a heightened scrutiny and robust internal controls to ascertain data accuracy and reliability.

Opportunities Beckon

Amidst the labyrinth of challenges, lies a treasure trove of opportunities for companies to redefine their sustainability narrative:

Enhanced Transparency:

  • The mandatory disclosure regime paves the way for an era of enhanced transparency, fostering a culture of openness and accountability.
  • It provides a platform for companies to showcase their sustainability endeavors, benchmarks, and milestones achieved.

Investor Engagement:

  • A structured and comprehensive disclosure framework augments investor trust and engagement by providing a clear lens into the company's sustainability performance.
  • It facilitates informed decision-making and fosters a dialogue between companies and their stakeholders on sustainability matters.

Corporate Sustainability:

  • The journey towards compliance is also a journey towards corporate sustainability, urging companies to intertwine sustainability into their strategic fabric.
  • The regulatory impetus serves as a catalyst for companies to accelerate their sustainability initiatives, align with global standards, and drive meaningful impact.

Strategies for Navigating the Transition

Navigating the intricate tapestry of the new regulatory framework requires a blend of robust data management, advanced technology, and strategic partnerships. Here's a roadmap to steer through the transition seamlessly:

Fortifying Systems and Processes

High-Quality Data Management:

  • A robust data management infrastructure is pivotal for accuracy, consistency, and timeliness in sustainability disclosures.
  • Standardized data collection, validation, and reporting protocols, underpinned by clear governance, lay the foundation for high-quality data management.

Process Optimization:

  • Streamlining processes involved in data collection, validation, analysis, and reporting enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of sustainability disclosures.
  • A continuous improvement ethos, characterized by regular process reviews and refinements, cultivates a culture of excellence.

Embracing Technological Advancements


  • Automation alleviates manual burdens associated with data collection, validation, and reporting, fostering real-time data monitoring and analysis.
  • This significantly enhances the accuracy and efficiency of sustainability reporting.

Integrated Workflows:

  • Integrated workflows ensure seamless data flow across diverse systems and platforms, providing a unified view of a company's sustainability performance.
  • This fosters informed and holistic decision-making, essential for a cohesive sustainability narrative.

Platform Solutions: Leveraging Discloser

Technology-Powered Disclosure Management:

  • Platforms like Discloser emerge as enablers of streamlined sustainability reporting. Harnessing the power of Generative AI, Discloser simplifies compliance with regulatory mandates through automated drafting of reports.
  • It augments the capacity for high-quality data management, analytical rigor, and seamless reporting workflows.

Comprehensive Framework Support:

  • Discloser is adept at supporting all standard frameworks, going an extra mile to work together with clients on customized frameworks, ensuring a tailored fit for diverse reporting needs.
  • Its collaborative approach ensures alignment with both standard and bespoke reporting frameworks, facilitating a seamless transition to the new disclosure regime.

Investor-Grade Reporting:

  • Discloser’s capabilities extend beyond compliance, paving the way for investor-grade sustainability reporting that enhances stakeholder trust and engagement.
  • By bridging the data integrity gap and fostering transparency and comparability in sustainability disclosures, Discloser propels the sustainability narrative forward.

Embark on Your Sustainability Reporting Journey with Discloser

Navigating the new era of sustainability reporting doesn't have to be daunting. With Discloser at your helm, simplifying complex disclosure requirements into an attainable roadmap is just the beginning. Whether adhering to standard frameworks or devising customized ones, Discloser's flexibility ensures your reporting is accurate, comprehensive, and resonant with your corporate ethos.

Leverage the power of Generative AI to not just meet but exceed regulatory and stakeholder expectations. Experience seamless drafting of reports, ensuring you stay ahead in the sustainability narrative. Our seasoned team collaborates with you, ensuring a smooth transition towards impeccable sustainability reporting. We're more than a platform; we're your partners in this pivotal journey.

Sign up for Discloser and redefine your sustainability narrative. Your journey towards excellence in sustainability reporting begins here.

Sofia Fominova
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